Technologies enhancing tissue vascularity are critically important to cardiovascular medicine. Currently, strategies to promote angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in a controlled manner are limited. This chapter discusses the role and promise of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in hard/soft tissue engineering applications, primarily focusing on therapeutic angiogenesis. A brief review of the different delivery systems, ranging from scaffolds to nanoparticles, carrying VEGF follows, in the context of present potential and challenges. Finally, a prospectus on the future of VEGF therapy will be presented.