The interaction between malignant cells and the tumor microenvironment is critical for tumor progression, and the chemokine ligand/receptor axes play a crucial role in this process. The CXCR4/CXCL12 and CCR5/CCL5 axes, both related to HIV, have been associated with the early (epithelial–mesenchymal transition and invasion) and late events (migration and metastasis) of cancer progression. In addition, these axes can also modulate the immune response against tumors. Thus, antagonists against the receptors of these axes have been proposed in cancer therapy. Although preclinical studies have shown promising results, clinical trials are needed to include these drugs in the oncological treatment protocols. New alternatives for these antagonists, such as dual CXCR4/CCR5 antagonists or combined therapy in association with immunotherapy, need to be studied in cancer therapy.
Nota bibliográficaPublisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.