It has been identified that the peroneus longus presents a regional activity. Specifically, a greater activation of the anterior and posterior compartments has been observed during eversion, whereas a lower activation of the posterior compartment has been reported during plantarflexion. In addition to myoelectrical amplitude, motor unit recruitment can be inferred indirectly from muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV). However, there are few reports of MFCV of the regions that make up a muscle, and even less, MFCV of the peroneus longus compartments. This study aimed to analyze the MFCV of peroneus longus compartments during eversion and plantarflexion. Twenty-one healthy individuals were assessed. High-density surface electromyography was recorded from the peroneus longus during eversion and plantarflexion at 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction. The posterior compartment presented a lower MFCV than the anterior compartment during plantarflexion, and both compartments did not show differences in MFCV during eversion; however, the posterior compartment showed an increase in MFCV during eversion compared to plantarflexion. Differences observed in the MFCV of the peroneus longus compartments could support a regional activation strategy and, to some extent, explain different motor unit recruitment strategies of the peroneus longus during ankle movements.
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