Preterm birth (PTB) is a major cause of neonatal death and long-term consequences for the newborn. This review aims to update the evidence about the potential benefit of pharmacological supplementation with omega 3 fatty acids during pregnancy on the incidence of PTB. The Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Central databases were searched until 28 June 2020 for RCTs in which omega 3 supplementation was used versus placebo to reduce PTB risk. Data from 37 trials were analyzed. We found an 11% reduction in PTB risk (RR(risk ratios), 0.89; 95% CI (confidence intervals), 0.82 to 0.97) in trials using omega 3 supplements versus placebo. Regarding early PTB (ePTB), there was a 27% reduction in the risk of ePTB (RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.92). However, after sensitivity analyses, there were no significant differences in PTB and ePTB risk (PTB RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.01, ePTB RR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.61 to 1.09). We conclude that omega 3 supplementation during pregnancy does not reduce the risk of PTB and ePTB. More studies are required to determine the effect of omega 3 supplementations during pregnancy and the risk of detrimental fetal outcomes.
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