Hypertonicity (e.g., high NaCl) activates the transcription factor tonicity-responsive enhancer/osmotic response element-binding protein (TonEBP/OREBP), increasing transcription of protective genes. In the present studies, by stably expressing amino acids 1-547 of TonEBP/OREBP in HEK 293 cells and immunoprecipitating it plus associated proteins from the nuclei of cells exposed to high NaCl, we identify 14 proteins that are physically associated with TonEBP/OREBP. The associated proteins fall into several classes: 1) DNA-dependent protein kinase, both its catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit, Ku86; 2) RNA helicases, namely RNA helicase A, nucleolar RNA helicase II/Gu, and DEAD-box RNA helicase p72; 3) small or heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs or hnRNPs), namely U5 snRNP-specific 116 kDa protein, U5 snRNP-specific 200 kDa protein, hnRNP U, hnRNP M, hnRNP K, and hnRNP F; 4) heat shock proteins, namely Hsp90β and Hsc70; and 5) poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). We confirm identification of most of the proteins by Western analysis and also demonstrate by electrophoretic mobility-shift assay that they are present in the large complex that binds specifically along with TonEBP/OREBP to its cognate DNA element. In addition, we find that PARP-1 and Hsp90 modulate TonEBP/OREBP activity. PARP-1 expression reduces TonEBP/OREBP transcriptional activity and the activity of its transactivating domain. Hsp90 enhances those activities and sustains the increased abundance of TonEBP/OREBP protein in cells exposed to high NaCl.