Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) are a family of lipids controlling the resolution of inflammation and playing a role in many processes including organ protection and tissue repair. While SPMs are potent bioactive molecules in vivo, their role in epimorphic regeneration of organs in vertebrates has not been tested. Using the zebrafish larva as a robust regenerative vertebrate system, we studied the role of the SPM neuroprotectin/protectin D1 (PD1) during the caudal fin fold regeneration.
Regeneration of the fin fold was analysed when exposed to a synthetic PD1. The effect of PD1 on immune cell recruitment and activation was further investigated using live imaging combined with fluorescent reporter lines. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we dissected the role of neutrophils and macrophages on driving the pro-regenerative effect of PD1.
We showed that PD1 improves fin fold regeneration. Acting in a narrow time window during regeneration, PD1 accelerates the resolution of inflammation without affecting the initial kinetic of neutrophil recruitment but instead, promotes their reverse migration potential. In addition, PD1 induces macrophage polarization switch towards non-inflammatory states in both zebrafish and mammalian system. Finally, macrophages but not neutrophils are essential for PD1-mediated regeneration.
Conclusion and Implications
These results reveal the pro-regenerative action of PD1 and its role in regulating neutrophil and macrophage response in vertebrates. These findings strongly support the development of pro-resolving mediators as natural therapeutic candidates for degenerative disorders and the use of the zebrafish as a tool to investigate pro-regenerative drugs.
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© 2020 The British Pharmacological Society