Introduction: Regenerative endodontic procedures have emerged as a new treatment. The aim of this case report was to describe a regenerative autologous cellular therapy using mesenchymal stem cells from inflamed dental pulp and leukocyte platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) in a mature tooth. Methods: A healthy 50-year-old man consulting for spontaneous dental pain was referred for endodontic treatment in tooth #28, which was diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Inflamed dental pulp was extracted and transported to a good manufacturing practice laboratory for the isolation and culture of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). L-PRF was obtained from the patient's blood and was introduced into the instrumented and disinfected root canal, and expanded DPSCs were inoculated into the clot. The cervical part of the root canal was sealed with Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France) and a composite resin. Results: Follow-up examinations were performed 6 months and 3 years later. The examinations included periapical radiographs (to measure the periapical index [PAI]), cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging, sensitivity, and vitality tests. Clinical evaluations revealed normal responses to percussion and palpation tests. The tooth had a delayed response to cold, and the electric pulp test was responsive. The PAI and CBCT imaging revealed that the periapical area remained normal with a PAI score of 1 and a CBCT PAI score of 0. The vitality test performed indicated low blood perfusion units. Conclusions: This case study reveals the potential use of a patient's own DPSCs and L-PRF as an alternative procedure for the treatment of pulpitis in mature permanent teeth. It also paves the way for the design of personalized cell-based clinical trials in regenerative endodontics.
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