Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between obesity and periodontitis staging compared with periodontal healthy or gingivitis in pregnant women. Materials and methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on pregnant women between 11 and 14 weeks of pregnancy. Sociodemographic, clinical, obstetric, and periodontal variables were studied. The exposure variable was obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30), and the primary outcome was periodontitis staging versus periodontal healthy/gingivitis. Data were analysed and estimated by multinomial logistic regression models. Results: The present study screened 1086 pregnancies and analysed 972 women with a median age of 29 years; 36.8% were diagnosed as obese. 26.9% of patients were diagnosed as periodontal healthy or gingivitis, 5.5% with stage I periodontitis, 38.6% with stage II periodontitis, 24% with stage III periodontitis, and 5.1% with stage IV periodontitis. After identifying and adjusting for confounding variables (educational level and plaque index), obesity had a relative risk ratio (RRR) of 1.66 (95% CI: 1.05–2.64; p = 0.03) and 1.57 (95% CI: 1.09–2.27; p = 0.015) for stage III periodontitis compared to periodontal healthy/gingivitis and stage II periodontitis, respectively. Conclusion: Besides the already known risk indicators for periodontitis (age, smoking, and educational level), our study suggests a relationship between obesity and periodontitis staging in pregnancy. Clinical relevance: Obesity can alter host immune responses, leading to increased susceptibility to infections and overactive host immunity, which could influence the prevalence and severity of maternal periodontitis in pregnancy.
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© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.