Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequent causes of cancer death worldwide. Historically, diagnosis was based on physical examination, transrectal (TRUS) images, and TRUS biopsy resulting in overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Recently magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been identified as an evolving tool in terms of diagnosis, staging, treatment decision, and follow-up. In this review we provide the key studies and concepts of MRI as a promising tool in the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer in the general population and in challenging scenarios, such as anteriorly located lesions, enlarged prostates determining extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion, and prior negative biopsy and the future role of MRI in association with artificial intelligence (AI).
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