There is a steadily growing interest in the use of mitochondria as therapeutic agents. The use of mitochondria derived from mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) for therapeutic purposes represents an innovative approach to treat many diseases (immune deregulation, inflammation-related disorders, wound healing, ischemic events, and aging) with an increasing amount of promising evidence, ranging from preclinical to clinical research. Furthermore, the eventual reversal, induced by the intercellular mitochondrial transfer, of the metabolic and pro-inflammatory profile, opens new avenues to the understanding of diseases' etiology, their relation to both systemic and local risk factors, and also leads to new therapeutic tools for the control of inflammatory and degenerative diseases. To this end, we illustrate in this review, the triggers and mechanisms behind the transfer of mitochondria employed by MSCs and the underlying benefits as well as the possible adverse effects of MSCs mitochondrial exchange. We relay the rationale and opportunities for the use of these organelles in the clinic as cell-based product.
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