Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 (FGF23) and cofactor Klotho are key regulators of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease (CKD), but little is known about the mechanisms that regulate their production. This study evaluates longitudinal changes of FGF23 and Klotho levels and their regulatory factors in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD).
FGF23, Klotho, 25(OH) vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) plasma concentrations were measured during 1 year of follow-up in PD children. Anthropometric and dialytical parameters were evaluated in addition to mineral metabolism variables.
Thirty-one patients under chronic PD were followed for 12 months. FGF23 mean plasma levels at Month 1 were significantly increased compared with controls, 215.1 ± 303.6 versus 9.4 ± 5.7 pg/mL, respectively (P < 0.001). Baseline Klotho levels were 41% lower in patients compared with controls, 132.1 ± 58 versus 320 ± 119.4 pg/mL, respectively (P < 0.001), and did not correlate with FGF23 and phosphorus levels. At Month 12, FGF23 (195 ± 300 pg/mL) and Klotho levels (130 ± 34 pg/mL) remained similar to baseline values. Log-FGF23 correlated significantly with height/age Z score (r= −0.38) and residual renal function (r = −0.44), but no correlation was found with serum phosphorus, phosphate intake, PTH and vitamin D levels. The log-FGF23 strongly correlated with calcium levels at Months 1, 6 and 12, however, this relationship was blunted if serum phosphorus was >6 mg/dL. By multiple regression analysis, calcium was the strongest variable determining FGF23 levels.
In this longitudinal study, FGF23 levels are markedly increased, and Klotho levels are reduced in PD children compared with controls. FGF23 levels appeared to be regulated primarily by serum calcium, showing a significant correlation at each time of measurement. This relationship was lost in patients with phosphorus >6 mg/dL. These observations may have important consequences to the therapeutic management of phosphate homeostasis in CKD patients.
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