In just a few years, immune checkpoint inhibitors have dramatically changed the landscape in oncology, offering durable responses and improved survival for many patients across several tumor types. With more than 3,300 new agents in the immuno-oncology pipeline plus a wide array of combinations being studied, it seems this new era is just getting started. These advances come with a significant caveat: most of the world population does not have access to their benefits, because the yearly cost of a novel anticancer medication can routinely exceed $100,000. There is a large amount of data showing that checkpoint inhibitors have significant activity at doses much lower than those currently approved. We review the evidence for reduced drug dosing as a strategy to increase the number of patients who can be treated and what would be needed to further validate this approach.