Early and innovative diagnostic strategies are required to predict the risk of developing pre-eclampsia (PE). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) concentrations to correctly classify women at risk of PE. A prospectively collected, retrospectively stratified cohort study was conducted, with 412 pregnant women recruited at 11–14 weeks of gestation. Physical, obstetrical, and periodontal data were recorded. GCF and blood samples were collected for PLAP determination by ELISA assay. A multiple logistic regression classification model was developed, and the classification efficiency of the model was established. Within the study cohort, 4.3% of pregnancies developed PE. GCF-PLAP concentration was 3-to 6-fold higher than in plasma samples. GCF-PLAP concentrations and systolic blood pressure were greater in women who developed PE (p = 0.015 and p < 0.001, respectively). The performance of the multiparametric model that combines GCF-PLAP concentration and the levels of systolic blood pressure (at 11–14 weeks gestation) showed an association of systolic blood pressure and GCF-PLAP concentrations with the likelihood of developing PE (OR:1.07; 95% CI 1.01–1.11; p = 0.004 and OR:1.008, 95% CI 1.000–1.015; p = 0.034, respectively). The model had a sensitivity of 83%, a specificity of 72%, and positive and negative predictive values of 12% and 99%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) curve was 0.77 and correctly classified 72% of PE pregnancies. In conclusion, the multivariate classification model developed may be of utility as an aid in identifying pre-symptomatic women who subsequently develop PE.
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