The structure of nocturnal sleep of 16 volunteers, participating in the anaerobic sports of trampolining, dancing, and soccer, was monitored by means of polygraphic recordings. Since trampolining requires the acquisition of unfamiliar patterns of motor coordination, it can be considered as a special form of motor learning, whereas the acquisition of motor skills specific for dancing and soccer can be linked with motor patterns of normal biped locomotion. According to this view, an experimental group of 8 volunteers was formed; they participated in a training course of trampolining. In addition, a control group of 8 subjects was recruited, who engaged in one of the other two anaerobic sports. Subjects who had acquired new motor skills during a 13-wk. program in trampolining showed a statistically significant increase in REM-sleep. By contrast, the 8 subjects of the control group showed no considerable changes in REM-sleep. This suggests that efforts in acquiring new and complex motor patterns activate processes specifically involved in the generation of REM stage during nocturnal sleep.