Methods: Two-step self-etching adhesive systems containing 5, 10, and 20 wt.% of 45S5 and NbG bioactive glasses were developed. An experimental adhesive without microparticles and a commercial adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond) were used as control groups. The materials were evaluated for their degree of conversion (DC%), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), softening in solvent, radiopacity, sorption and solubility, alkalizing activity (pH), ionic release, and bioactivity. μTBS and NL were evaluated after 24 h and 1 year of storage. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and post-Holm-Sidak tests (α = 0.05).
Results: The addition of the two bioactive glasses did not change the values of the degree of conversion, ultimate tensile strength, and softening in solvent. The adhesive system containing 20% NbG showed the highest radiopacity. The incorporation of 45S5 increased water sorption and solubility, raised the pH, and allowed the release of large amounts of calcium. After 28 days of immersion in simulated body fluid, the 45S5 adhesive precipitated hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate (SEM/EDX, ATR/FTIR, and XDR). The addition of 45S5 and NbG to the adhesives improved the stability of the resin-dentin interface after 1 year.
Significance: The incorporation of microparticles from 45S5 bioactive glass in self-etching adhesive systems is considered an excellent alternative for the development of a bioactive adhesive that improves the integrity of the hybrid layer on sound dentin.
Keywords: Alkalizing activity; Bioactive glass; Bioactivity; Ions release; Mechanical properties; Microtensile bonding strength; Nanoleakage; Self-etching adhesive systems.