The microbiome corresponds to the genetic component of microorganisms (archaea, bacteria, phages, viruses, fungi, and protozoa) that coexist with an individual. During the last two decades, research on this topic has become massive demonstrating that in both homeostasis and disease, the microbiome plays an important role, and in some cases, a decisive one. To date, microbiota have been identified at different body locations, such as the eyes, lung, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, and skin, and technological advances have permitted the taxonomic characterization of resident species and their metabolites, in addition to the cellular and molecular components of the host that maintain a crosstalk with local microorganisms. Here, we summarize recent studies regarding microbiota residing in different zones of the body and their relationship with the immune system. We emphasize the immune components underlying pathological conditions and how they interact with local (and distant) microbiota.