Background: Over the last 20 years, fructose has gradually emerged as a potential metabolic substrate capable of promoting the growth and progression of various cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). The biological and molecular mechanisms that underlie the effects of fructose on cancer are beginning to be elucidated. Methods: This review summarizes the biological function of fructose as a potential carbon source for PCa cells and its role in the functionality of the male reproductive tract under normal conditions. Results: The most recent biological advances related to fructose transport and metabolism as well as their implications in PCa growth and progression suggest that fructose represent a potential carbon source for PCa cells. Consequently, fructose derivatives may represent efficient radiotracers for obtaining PCa images via positron emission tomography and fructose transporters/fructose-metabolizing enzymes could be utilized as potential diagnostic and/or predictive biomarkers for PCa. Conclusion:: The existing data suggest that restriction of fructose from the diet could be a useful therapeutic strategy for patients with PCa.
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