Life stressors can wreak havoc on our health, contributing to mood disorders like major depressive disorder (MDD), a widespread and debilitating condition. Unfortunately, current treatments and diagnostic strategies fall short of addressing these disorders, highlighting the need for new approaches. In this regard, the relationship between MDD, brain inflammation (neuroinflammation), and systemic inflammation in the body may offer novel insights. Recent research has uncovered the crucial role of astrocytes in coordinating the inflammatory response through the release of extracellular vesicles (ADEVs) during different neuroinflammatory conditions. While the contribution of ADEVs to stress and MDD remains largely unexplored, their potential to modulate immune cells and contribute to MDD pathogenesis is significant. In this article, we delve into the immunomodulatory role of ADEVs, their potential impact on peripheral immune cells, and how their microRNA (miRNA) landscape may hold the key to controlling immune cell activity. Together, these mechanisms may constitute an opportunity to develop novel therapeutic pharmacological approaches to tackle mood disorders.
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