The burden of pneumococcal disease in Latin America is most pronounced in children aged <6 years. The increasing rate of resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin and other antibiotics has generated concern among health authorities, since infection by antibiotic-resistant serotypes may be associated with increased mortality. Increased resistance is due to a number of factors including high antibiotic usage in this region. Vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines offers an effective approach to counter resistant disease due to covered serotypes. Existing surveillance systems must be continued to recognise changes in patterns of resistance and the serotypes that cause pneumococcal disease.
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- Antibiotic resistance
- Streptococcus pneumoniae