Anatomy of the Flexor Hallucis Longus and Its Relationship With Hallux Valgus: A Cadaveric Study

Ximena Ahumada*, Cristián Ortiz, Giovanni Carcuro, Manuel Pellegrini, Ana Butteri, Carlos Albarrán, Felipe Chaparro

*Autor correspondiente de este trabajo

Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículorevisión exhaustiva


Background: Hallux valgus (HV) is a complex deformity, with many associated risk factors. The flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon is a dynamic and potentially deforming force as it bowstrings laterally with HV. We hypothesized that FHL is more laterally inserted in the distal phalanx in cadavers with HV; therefore, it might be also a primary destabilizing force. We aim to compare the FHL distal insertion morphology and its relationship with osseous structures in cadavers with and without HV. Methods: Sixteen cadaver specimens, 8 with HV and 8 without (N-HV) were dissected. We evaluated FHL distal morphology in terms of its insertional footprint location and FHL long-axis position in relation to osseous anatomy. Results: Both the HV and N-HV groups displayed a laterally inserted footprint at the distal phalanx, with the HV group exhibiting median lateral translation of the footprint 6% greater than the N-HV group (P <.01). Both groups also demonstrated a laterally displaced position for the FHL long axis. The median FHL long axis for HV vs N-HV specimens 1 cm proximal to the IP joint was 9% more laterally displaced from the midaxis (P <.01), and at 1 cm proximal to the MTP joint was measured to be 15% more laterally displaced from the midaxis (P <.01). Conclusion: FHL demonstrated an eccentric position in terms of insertion and trajectory in both the HV and N-HV groups, with greater lateralization in specimens exhibiting HV deformity. This eccentricity potentially creates a greater deforming force vector contributing to the development of HV. Clinical relevance: The etiology and progression of HV deformity may include a lateralized insertion of the FHL tendon. Treatment implications remain unknown at this time.

Idioma originalInglés
PublicaciónFoot and Ankle International
EstadoAceptada/en prensa - 2024

Nota bibliográfica

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2024.


Profundice en los temas de investigación de 'Anatomy of the Flexor Hallucis Longus and Its Relationship With Hallux Valgus: A Cadaveric Study'. En conjunto forman una huella única.

Citar esto