The treatment of high-risk patients still is a challenge. The understanding and development non-invasive, non-destructive, and non-ionizing techniques, can help to guide the treatment and the diagnosis of primary and recurrent caries. The present study evaluated the behavior of enamel/restoration interface after a cariogenic challenge by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination, and the fluoride release of the different restorative materials. Cavities (1.5 × 0.5 mm) were performed in enamel surface and divided into groups (n = 8): glass ionomer cement (GIC), resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), and resin composite (RC). The samples were submitted to pH-cycling, and the solutions analyzed for cumulative fluoride by ion-analyzer. The morphology was analyzed by SEM through replicas. The optical attenuation coefficient (OAC) was calculated through exponential decay from the images generated by FD-OCT. Data were analyzed considering α = 0.05. OAC values increased for all groups after pH-cycling indicating demineralization (p <.05). Considering the remineralizing solution, RMGIC presented higher fluoride release rate, followed by GIC, while RC did not release any fluoride. Yet for the demineralizing solution, RMGIC and GIC released similar fluoride rates, overcoming RC (p <.05). Micrographs revealed no changes on the restorations margins, although enamel detachment was observed for RC and GIC after pH-cycling.
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