Introduction: Cell therapy in regenerative endodontics introduces an alternative option to classic treatment strategies for complex endodontic cases. The aim of this case report was to describe cell-based therapy using allogeneic umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) encapsulated in a bioscaffold for a complex case of a mature permanent tooth with apical periodontitis and accidental root perforation. Methods: A healthy 19-year-old man undergoing orthodontic treatment was referred for endodontic treatment in tooth #7; he was diagnosed with apical periodontitis during a previously initiated treatment associated with accidental perforation of the radicular cervical third. The root perforation was sealed with glass ionomer and composite resin, and the root canal was instrumented, disinfected, and dressed with calcium hydroxide. After 3 weeks, allogeneic UC-MSCs were encapsulated in platelet-poor plasma and then implanted into the root canal, and Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France) was placed below the cementoenamel junction. Finally, the tooth was restored with composite resin. Results: Follow-up examinations were performed 6 months and 1 year later. The examinations included periapical radiography, cone-beam computed tomographic imaging, and sensitivity and vitality tests. Radiographic and cone-beam computed tomographic images indicated remission of the apical lesion. Clinical evaluations revealed normal responses to percussion and palpation tests; the tooth was responsive to the electric pulp test, and the vitality test indicated low blood perfusion units. Conclusions: This case report reveals the potential use of allogeneic cellular therapy using encapsulated UC-MSCS in a platelet-poor plasma scaffold for a complex case of a permanent tooth with apical periodontitis and root perforation.
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