BACKGROUND/AIMS: Acute kidney injury (AKI) carries high morbidity and mortality, and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is a potential molecular target to prevent kidney dysfunction. In previous work, we reported that the pharmacological inhibitions of iNOS before ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) attenuate the I/R-induced AKI in mice. Here, we study the iNOS inhibitor 1400W [N-(3-(Aminomethyl)benzyl] acetamide, which has been described to be much more specific to iNOS inhibition than other compounds. METHODS: We used 30 minutes of bilateral renal ischemia, followed by 24 hours of reperfusion in Balb/c mice. 1400w (10 mg/kg i.p) was applied before I/R injury. We measured the expression of elements associated with kidney injury, inflammation, macrophage polarization, mesenchymal transition, and nephrogenic genes by qRT-PCR in the renal cortex and medulla. The Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) was used to study the kidney morphology. RESULTS: Remarkably, we found that 1400W affects the renal cortex and medulla in different ways. Thus, in the renal cortex, 1400W prevented the I/R-upregulation of 1. NGAL, Clusterin, and signs of morphological damage; 2. IL-6 and TNF-α; 3. TGF-β; 4. M2(Arg1, Erg2, cMyc) and M1(CD38, Fpr2) macrophage polarization makers; and 5. Vimentin and FGF2 levels but not in the renal medulla. CONCLUSION: 1400W conferred protection in the kidney cortex compared to the kidney medulla. The present investigation provides relevant information to understand the opportunity to use 1400W as a therapeutic approach in AKI treatment.
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