Water Resistance Therapy as Vocal Warm-Up Method in Contemporary Commercial Music Singers

Marcelo Saldías, Marco Guzman, Gabriela Sandoval, Carla Vergara, Josselyn Lizana, Camilo Quezada

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Background/Aims: Although water resistance therapy (WRT) has been widely used in voice training, no data are supporting the effectiveness of WRT as vocal warm-up for singers. The present study aimed to determine the effects of WRT as a vocal warm-up method in contemporary commercial music (CCM) singers. Methods: Twenty-two CCM singers were randomly assigned to one of two types of 15-min vocal warm-up: open vocal tract (OVT) warm-up and WRT. Self-perceived resonant voice quality and aerodynamic, electroglottographic, and acoustic measures were assessed before, immediately after vocal warm-up, and after 40 min of vocal loading. Results: Significant results were found immediately after vocal warm-up. Subglottic pressure and inspiratory airflow duration decreased in both groups. SPL decreased for the OVT group. No changes in SPL were found for the WRT group. Significant results were observed after vocal loading. Subglottic pressure and inspiratory airflow duration decreased for both groups after vocal loading. Expiratory airflow duration and electroglottographic contact quotient decreased for the OVT group. Conclusion: Some objective data suggest that the WRT method is more effective as vocal warm-up than OVT exercises. Since outcomes in self-perceived resonant voice quality for both methods were similar but physiological effects were different, vocal warm-up strategies might produce a placebo effect.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalFolia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel. Copyright: All rights reserved.


  • Acoustic and electroglottographic measures
  • Aerodynamic measure
  • Semi-occluded vocal tract
  • Singing
  • Voice training
  • Warm-up
  • Water resistance therapy


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