Systemic burden and cardiovascular risk to Porphyromonas species in apical periodontitis

Constanza Jiménez, Mauricio Garrido, Pirkko Pussinen, María José Bordagaray, Alejandra Fernández, Claudia Vega, Alejandra Chaparro, Anilei Hoare, Marcela Hernández

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: Porphyromonas (P.) species (spp.) are a major etiological agent of apical periodontitis (AP), which in turn represents a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This study explored the associations between endodontic infection with Porphyromonas species, the systemic bacterial burden, and cardiovascular risk, based on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), in young adults with AP. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study. Otherwise, healthy individuals with AP and controls (n = 80, ≤ 40 years) were recruited at the University Dental Clinic. Oral parameters and classic cardiovascular risk factors were registered. Endodontic Porphyromonas endodontalis and Porphyromonas gingivalis were identified using conventional PCR. Serum concentrations of anti-P. endodontalis and anti-P. gingivalis antibodies, and endotoxins were determined through ELISA and Limulus-amebocyte assays. Serum hsCRP was determined for cardiovascular risk stratification. Results: Intracanal detection of P. endodontalis and P. gingivalis in AP were 33.3% and 22.9%, respectively. Serum anti-P. endodontalis and anti-P. gingivalis IgG was higher in AP than controls (p < 0.05 and p = 0.057, respectively). Intracanal P. endodontalis associated with higher endotoxemia (p < 0.05). Among endodontic factors, the presence (OR 4.2–5.5, p < 0.05) and the number of apical lesions (OR 2.3, p < 0.05) associated with moderate-severe cardiovascular risk, whereas anti-P. endodontalis IgG were protective (OR 0.3, p > 0.05). Conclusions: AP and infection with P. endodontalis positively associated with cardiovascular risk based on hsCRP levels and endotoxemia, respectively, whereas anti-P. endodontalis IgG response seems to be protective against low-grade systemic inflammation. Clinical relevance: Apical periodontitis and endodontic P. endodontalis can influence the systemic burden with impact on the surrogate cardiovascular risk marker hsCRP, providing mechanistic links.

Original languageEnglish
JournalClinical Oral Investigations
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The work was supported by the Chilean National Fund for Scientific and Technologic Development (FONDECYT; grants #1060741 and 1200098, M.H.), the Päivikki and Sakari Sohlberg Foundation (P.J.P.), the Sigrid Juselius Foundation (P.J.P.), the European Society of Endodontology (P.J.P.), and the Aarne Koskelo foundation.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

Keywords

  • Apical periodontitis
  • C-reactive protein
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Immunoglobulins
  • Porphyromonas
  • Systemic inflammation

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