Short curing time bulk fill composite systems: volumetric shrinkage, degree of conversion and Vickers hardness

Camila Sobral Sampaio, João Luiz Bittencourt de Abreu, Batsheva Kornfeld, Eduardo Moreira da Silva, Marcelo Giannini, Ronaldo Hirata

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1 Scopus citations


This study aimed to evaluate volumetric polymerization shrinkage, degree of conversion and Vickers hardness of four bulk-fill resin composites light-activated with their dedicated light curing units (LCUs). Four groups were evaluated, according to the type of composite and curing mode: Tetric EvoCeram Bulk-fill (TEBO) and Tetric EvoFlow Bulk-fill (TEBF) were light-activated with Bluephase Style 20i (20s, in high-mode), while Tetric Powerfill (TEPO) and Tetric Powerflow (TEPF) were light-activated with Bluephase PowerCure (3s). Volumetric polymerization shrinkage test (n = 6) was performed in standardized box-shaped class-I cavities of extracted third molars (4 x 4 x 4 mm). Teeth were scanned before and after resin composite application by micro-computed tomography, and acquired data were evaluated with Amira software. Degree of conversion (n = 5) was evaluated at the top and bottom surfaces of composite cylindric samples (4 mm diameter, 4 mm thickness) using an FT-IR spectrometer (spectra between 1,500 and 1,800 cm-1, 40 scans at a resolution of 4 cm-1). Three Vickers indentations (50 g / 15 s), spaced 500 μm apart, were performed on the top and bottom composite surfaces and averaged. One-way ANOVA was used for data evaluation. TEPF showed the lowest volumetric polymerization shrinkage (p < 0.05), while the other composites were not significantly different within each other (p > 0.05). All materials presented a significant decrease in degree of conversion and Vickers hardness when compared top to bottom surfaces (p < 0.05). Bottom to top surface ratios for degree of conversion ranged from 0.8 (TEBO and TEPO) to 0.9 (TEBF and TEPF), and from 0.4 (TEPO) to 0.7 (TEBF and TEPF) for hardness. In conclusion, resinous materials present a decrease in hardness and degree of conversion from top to bottom even when a higher power is used, while the flowable material TEPF showed the lowest volumetric shrinkage values compared to the other materials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e030
JournalBrazilian Oral Research
StatePublished - 2024
Externally publishedYes


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