For the past 100 years, vitamin A has been implicated as an essential dietary component in host resistance to infectious disease. However, only recently have studies begun to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of how vitamin A regulates cell-mediated and humoral-mediated immunity. In this review, we present an overview of the recent discoveries of the role that vitamin A and its metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), play in the regulation of immune cells. How RA impacts on leukocyte growth, differentiation, and homing is discussed with special attention to inflammatory responses and solid tumor microenvironment.
- Retinoic acid
- Vitamin A