Ranking of problems and solutions in the teaching and learning of object-oriented programming

Luz E. Gutiérrez*, Carlos A. Guerrero, Héctor A. López-Ospina

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


This study describes the most relevant problems and solutions found in the literature on teaching and learning of object-oriented programming (OOP). The identification of the problem was based on tertiary studies from the IEEE Xplore, Scopus, ACM Digital Library and Science Direct repositories. The problems and solutions identified were ranked through the multi-criteria decision methods DEMATEL and TOPSIS in order to determine the best solutions to the problems found and to apply these results in the academic context. The main contribution of this study was the categorization of OOP problems and solutions, as well as the proposal of strategies to improve the problem. Among the most relevant problems it was found: 1) difficulty in understanding, teaching and implementing object-orientation, 2) difficulties related to understanding classes and 3) difficulty in understanding object-oriented relationships. After doing the multicriteria analysis, it was found that the most important solutions to face the problems found in the teaching of OOP were: 1) use of active learning techniques and intrinsic rewards and 2) emphasize on basic programming concepts and introduce the object-oriented paradigm at an early point in the curriculum. As a conclusion, it was evidenced that there is coherence between the literary guarantee that gives support to the problems and solutions in the teaching of OOP presented in this study and the approaches that experts in the area of development highlight as relevant when they identify weaknesses in the process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7205-7239
Number of pages35
JournalEducation and Information Technologies
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jun 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


  • Multi-criteria
  • Object-oriented programming
  • Teaching-Learning


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