Objectives: Recognizing bipolar disorder as a multi-system metabolic condition driven, in part, by binge eating behavior and atypical depressive symptoms, this study aimed to quantify diet quality and evaluate clinical correlates in a bipolar disorder cohort. Methods: Participants from the Mayo Clinic Bipolar Disorder Biobank (n = 734) completed the Rapid Eating Assessment for Participants – Shortened version (REAP-S) to determine diet quality. The average REAP-S score for a U.S. omnivorous diet is 32 (range 13 to 39) with higher scores indicating healthier diet. Demographic variables were collected in a standardized clinical questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale. Cardiometabolic variables were retrieved from the electronic health record. Associations between continuous variables and REAP-S scores (total, ‘healthy foods’ and ‘avoidance of unhealthy foods’) were assessed using linear regression. Results: Overall, our sample had a mean REAP-S score of 27.6 (4.9), suggestive of a lower diet quality than the average general population in the US. There was a significant inverse relationship between mean REAP-S lower scores with increased BMI, waist circumference, disordered eating and depression. All these associations were significantly stronger in female participants. Limitations: EHR cross-sectional data. Conclusions: Our data suggest unhealthy diet quality in bipolar disorder is associated with depression, obesity and cardiometabolic abnormalities. Additional work is encouraged to prospectively track mood and diet quality to further understand the bidirectional relationship and clarify if dietary interventions can positively impact mood. Further delineating potential sex differences in diet quality and depression may provide greater appreciation of modifiable risk factors for future cardiometabolic burden.
Bibliographical noteCopyright © 2022. Published by Elsevier B.V.
- Bipolar depression
- Bipolar disorder
- Cardiometabolic markers
- Diet quality