Immunotherapy, in the form of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), has shown activity in metastatic urothelial bladder carcinoma, resulting in the approval of several ICI agents in the first- and second-line settings. This has led to an increased interest in studying their efficacy in the neoadjuvant setting for muscle invasive disease – an area of significant unmet need. This non-systematic review will look at the evidence supporting the use of ICI in the neoadjuvant setting for this tumor, results of early-phase studies, ongoing trials, and possible future applications for these drugs.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© The Author(s), 2021.
- bladder cancer
- immune checkpoint inhibitor
- muscle invasive