NanoBubble-Mediated Oxygenation: Elucidating the Underlying Molecular Mechanisms in Hypoxia and Mitochondrial-Related Pathologies

Sergio M Viafara Garcia, Muhammad Saad Khan, Ziyad S Haidar, Juan Pablo Acevedo Cox

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Worldwide, hypoxia-related conditions, including cancer, COVID-19, and neuro-degenerative diseases, often lead to multi-organ failure and significant mortality. Oxygen, crucial for cellular function, becomes scarce as levels drop below 10 mmHg (<2% O 2), triggering mitochondrial dysregulation and activating hypoxia-induced factors (HiFs). Herein, oxygen nanobubbles (OnB), an emerging versatile oxygen delivery platform, offer a novel approach to address hypoxia-related pathologies. This review explores OnB oxygen delivery strategies and systems, including diffusion, ultrasound, photodynamic, and pH-responsive nanobubbles. It delves into the nanoscale mechanisms of OnB, elucidating their role in mitochondrial metabolism (TFAM, PGC1alpha), hypoxic responses (HiF-1alpha), and their interplay in chronic pathologies including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders, amongst others. By understanding these dynamics and underlying mechanisms, this article aims to contribute to our accruing knowledge of OnB and the developing potential in ameliorating hypoxia- and metabolic stress-related conditions and fostering innovative therapies.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNanomaterials
Volume13
Issue number23
DOIs
StatePublished - 30 Nov 2023

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