Morphological analysis of the human maxillary sinus using three-dimensional printing

Nadia Araneda, Marcelo Parra, Wilfredo González-Arriagada, Mariano Del Sol, Ziyad Haidar, Sergio Olate*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: The maxillary sinus (MS) is described as a pyramid-shaped cavity of the maxilla. Aim: The aim of this research is to present a strategy for morphological analysis of the MS using three-dimensional (3D) printing acquired through cone-beam computed tomography images. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional exploratory, single-blind study was conducted, including 24 subjects. MSs were reconstructed, and 3D virtual modeling was done bilaterally, obtaining 48 physical models generated on a 3D printer. The statistical analysis used tests of normality and tests using a value of P < 0.05 to establish statistical significance. Results: The mean of the MS volume was 15.38 cm3 (±6.83 cm3). The minimum volume was 5.4 cm3 and the maximum was 30.8 cm3. In a bilateral comparison of the right and left volume of the same individual, there were no significant differences (P = 0.353). In relation to the morphology of the MSs, the most prevalent was pyramidal with a square base with a prevalence of 66.7%. Related to gender, significant differences were observed only for the left volume (P = 0.009), with the mean volume being significantly greater in the men (19.69 cm3) than in the women (12.28 cm3). Conclusion: 3D printing of the MS permitted the more precise observation of anatomical features that cannot be seen on a 2D screen. A classification is presented that allows an analysis of sinus morphology, although it is necessary to conduct studies with larger samples to obtain more conclusive results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)294-298
Number of pages5
JournalContemporary Clinical Dentistry
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by grant: DIE18‑0006.

Funding Information:
This work was supported by grant: DI16‑0003, Dirección de Investigación Universidad de La Frontera.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Contemporary Clinical Dentistry | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.


  • Maxillary sinus
  • sinus morphology
  • three-dimensional printing


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