Cellular therapy has gained an increasing popularity in recent years. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into bone, cartilage, or fat tissue. In recent studies, these cells have also shown healing capability by improving angiogenesis and preventing fibrosis, which could have a role in tissue repair and tissue regeneration. Preclinical and clinical orthopedic studies conducted in the adult population support the use of MSCs for bone-healing problems, early stages of osteonecrosis, and local bone defects. Only a few published studies support the use of MSCs in pediatric osteoarticular disorders, probably due to the unknown long-term results of cellular therapy. The purpose of this review is to explain the mechanism by which MSCs could exhibit a therapeutic role in pediatric osteoarticular disorders.