Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit potent immunoregulatory abilities by interacting with cells of the adaptive and innate immune system. In vitro, MSCs inhibit the differentiation of T cells into T helper 17 (Th17) cells and repress their proliferation. In vivo, the administration of MSCs to treat various experimental inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and bowel disease showed promising therapeutic results. These therapeutic properties mediated by MSCs are associated with an attenuated immune response characterized by a reduced frequency of Th17 cells and the generation of regulatory T cells. In this manuscript, we review how MSC and Th17 cells interact, communicate, and exchange information through different ways such as cell-to-cell contact, secretion of soluble factors, and organelle transfer. Moreover, we discuss the consequences of this dynamic dialogue between MSC and Th17 well described by their phenotypic and functional plasticity.
- Th17 cells
- mesenchymal stem cells