Invasive meningococcal disease in Chile seven years after ACWY conjugate vaccine introduction

R. Villena*, M. T. Valenzuela, M. Bastías, M. E. Santolaya

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: A serogroup W (MenW) outbreak in Chile prompted a meningococcal vaccination campaign using tetravalent meningococcal-conjugate vaccines (MCV–ACWY) in children since 2012, followed by its introduction into the National Immunization Program (NIP) in toddlers from 2014. Direct protection was observed, but no indirect effects in other age-groups were evidenced. The aim of this study was to describe invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) cases in Chile between 2009 and 2019, and its trend after the introduction of MCV–ACWYs. Methods: IMD cases, cumulative incidence per 100,000 inhabitants, CFR, and vaccination uptake were described. Data were obtained from the Public Health Institute and NIP. Results: Overall-IMD cases increased in 2009–2014 period, followed by a decline in 2015–2019, focused in infants, children <5 years and people ≥60 years. Serogroup B (MenB) and MenW alternate its predominance. Median overall incidence was 0.6/100,000, increasing from 0.6/100,000 in 2009 to 0.8/100,000 in 2014, later decreasing to 0.4/100,000 in 2019. Median incidences for MenB, serogroup C (MenC) and Y (MenY) were 0.25/100,000, <0.01/100,000 and <0.01/100,000, respectively. Median MenW incidence was 0.53/100,000, increasing from 0.01/100,000 in 2009 to 0.56/100,000 in 2014, followed by a constant decline to 0.12 in 2019. Infants, children <5 years and adults ≥60 years were affected the most, with median incidences of 9.7, 0.9 and 0.93, decreasing to 1.3, 0.1 and 0.1/100,000 in 2019, respectively. Median overall-CFR was 19%, 7.5% for MenB and 24.5% for MenW. Median MCV–ACWY uptake was 93% Conclusion: Overall-IMD, MenW cases and incidence declined since 2015 after the MCV-ACWY introduction, while MenB, MenC and MenY have been stable. MenW incidence declined in all age groups, including non-immunized infants and people >60 years. Further analysis and a longer period of observation are needed to have a more robust conclusion about this epidemiological trend. By 2019, CFR remains high.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)666-672
Number of pages7
JournalVaccine
Volume40
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 28 Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • Invasive meningococcal disease
  • Meningococcal conjugate vaccines
  • Meningococcal serogroup B
  • Meningococcal serogroup W
  • Neisseria meningitidis

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