Importance of Midfoot Ligaments in a Hallux Valgus Cadaveric Model

Emilio Wagner, Pablo Wagner, Florencia Pacheco, Mario López, Felipe H. Palma, Rodrigo Guzman- Venegas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Category:BunionIntroduction/Purpose:Hallux valgus (HV) is of uncertain origin. Even though a huge amount of treatment options are available, no clear cause for this deformity exist. To be able to further understand this frequent pathology, a cadaveric model should be developed. A cadaveric model was developed trying to obtain similar deformities to the ones observed in Hallux valgus (first ray varus and pronation). The objective of this research is to recreate some characteristics of a HV deformity, through sequential ligaments sectioning.Methods:8 fresh frozen lower leg specimens were used. Markers were attached to the medial and middle foot ray bones, including talus. A constant tibial axial load of 25 kg was used. Cyclic tibial rotation (to simulate gait phases) and 5 kg pull on the extensor and flexor hallucis tendons (EHL and FHL) were applied to the specimen. Limited and sequential medial and middle column ligamentous sectioning were performed, including the, dorsal and interosseous naviculo-cuneiform, intercuneiform, metatarso-cuneiform and intermetatarsal ligaments. After each ligament damage, bony alignment was measured including frontal (bone divergence) and axial plane (bone rotation).Results:After intercuneiform, Lisfranc and naviculo-cuneiform ligaments sectioning, a significant angular increase was found in the naviculo-cuneiform, intercuneiform and naviculo-metatarsal angles (p=0.001). Specifically, for bone rotation, the biggest change was found for the intercuneiform and naviculo-cuneiform angles. Regarding bone divergence, the biggest increase was found in the talo-metatarsal angle. No additional angular change was found after adding metatarso-cuneiform ligament damage. No change in the sagittal alignment was found.Conclusion:This model was able to recreate some parameters of the hallux valgus deformity. No flatfoot deformity was produced. Surprisingly, no significant angular change was produced after metatarso-cuneiform ligament damage. Most significant changes were found after intercuneiform and naviculocuneiform damage. Our findings suggest that midfoot instability has to be present to recreate a hallux valgus deformity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2473011421S0048
JournalFoot and Ankle Orthopaedics
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2022


  • Bunion
  • Ligament
  • Hallux valgus


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