Histological and Immunohistochemical Analysis of Peri-Implant Soft and Hard Tissues in Patients with Peri-Implantitis

Valentina Flores, Bernardo Venegas, Wendy Donoso, Camilo Ulloa, Alejandra Chaparro, Vanessa Sousa, Víctor Beltrán*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Currently, researchers are focused on the study of cytokines as predictive biomarkers of peri-implantitis (PI) in order to obtain an early diagnosis and prognosis, and for treatment of the disease. The aim of the study was to characterize the peri-implant soft and hard tissues in patients with a peri-implantitis diagnosis. A descriptive observational study was conducted. Fifteen soft tissue (ST) samples and six peri-implant bone tissue (BT) samples were obtained from 13 patients who were diagnosed with peri-implantitis. All the samples were processed and embedded in paraffin for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. A descriptive and quantitative analysis of mast cells and osteocytes, A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), B-cell activating factor (BAFF), osteonectin (ON), and ∝-smooth muscle actin (∝-SMA) was performed. We observed the presence of mast cells in peri-implant soft tissue in all samples (mean 9.21 number of mast cells) and osteocytes in peri-implant hard tissue in all samples (mean 37.17 number of osteocytes). The expression of APRIL-ST was 32.17% ± 6.39%, and that of APRIL-BT was 7.09% ± 5.94%. The BAFF-ST expression was 17.26 ± 12.90%, and the BAFF-BT was 12.16% ± 6.30%. The mean percentage of ON was 7.93% ± 3.79%, and ∝-SMA was 1.78% ± 3.79%. It was concluded that the expression of APRIL and BAFF suggests their involvement in the bone resorption observed in peri-implantitis. The lower expression of osteonectin in the peri-implant bone tissue can also be associated with a deficiency in the regulation of bone remodeling and the consequent peri-implant bone loss.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8388
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number14
StatePublished - 8 Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This study received funding from Project REDI 0170658 and FONDEF ID20i279, of the Chilean National Agency for Research and Development (ANID).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • oral health
  • osteonectin
  • peri-implant disease
  • peri-implantitis
  • ∝-smooth muscle actin


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