Enforcing Energy Balance in Coherently Superimposed Optical Vortices

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The generation of optical beams with multiple, mutually coherent orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) modes using phase gratings is analyzed from the perspective of energy distribution and radial mode composition. We show that phase gratings designed with equally weighted Laguerre-Gauss (LG) modes will generate beams with uneven energy distribution among OAM components. This unwanted outcome cannot be corrected by adjusting the width of the illuminating beam. We propose a way to design phase gratings that will produce a uniform energy distribution among the constituent OAM states after illumination while minimizing the content of high radial modes. This method is based on a generalized definition for the LG modes that take advantage of the freedom to select their radial scales.
Original languageAmerican English
JournalIEEE Photonics Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2018


  • coherent communications
  • Diffraction gratings
  • free-space optical communications
  • optical vortices

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