Effect of build orientation in accuracy, flexural modulus, flexural strength, and microhardness of 3D-Printed resins for provisional restorations

Eduardo F. de Castro*, Gabriel Nima, Frederick A. Rueggeberg, Marcelo Giannini

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of 3D-printing build orientation on accuracy, flexural modulus (FM), flexural strength (FS), and microhardness of selected, commercial 3D-printed provisional resins (3DRs). Material and methods: PMMA CAD/CAM provisional material (Vita Temp/Vita) served as Control. Four 3DRs (Cosmos-SLA/Yller, Cosmos-DLP/Yller, PriZma-Bioprov/Makertech, Nanolab/Wilcos) were used in three printing orientations (0°, 45°, and 90°). Printed samples were cleaned with isopropyl alcohol prior to post-curing in specific post-curing units. For each group, 20 bar-shaped samples (25 × 2x2 mm) and ten disc-shaped samples (15-mm diameter, 2.5-mm thick) were obtained. The dimensions of bar samples were measured and the mean percent errors were compared to the reference (digital) values to obtain “accuracy” (n = 20). Samples were then aged in distilled water at 37 °C and half were submitted to a three-point bend test in a universal testing machine after 24 h and the other half after 1 year (n = 10). Disc samples were polished prior to microhardness evaluation (n = 10). Microstructure and elemental composition of filler particles in the 3DRs were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) (n = 3). Accuracy and microhardness were submitted to two way-, and FM and FS to three way-ANOVA, followed by Tukey's tests. Results of experimental groups were compared to a milled PMMA Control using Dunnett's tests, and Student's t-tests compared FM and FS to Control at different aging periods (α = 0.05). Results: Except for Cosmos-DLP, the 90° orientation demonstrated the best overall accuracy in all dimensions evaluated. The overall accuracy of Cosmos-SLA was not significantly different from Control and higher than other 3DRs. The FM of all 3DRs was lower than Control, regardless of orientation and aging period. After 1 year of aging, FS of 45°-Cosmos-SLA and all orientations of PriZma were not different from Control, while 90°-Cosmos-SLA was higher. Build orientation had no influence on microhardness of the 3DRs: Nanolab was the only resin harder than Control. Very few nanometric spherical filler particles were found in Cosmos-SLA, Cosmos-DLP, and PriZma, while Nanolab presented higher number of particles having irregular shapes and sizes. Conclusions: In general, although build orientation did not influence microhardness results, the 90° -orientation resulted in the best overall accuracy for most 3DRs. After 1-year water storage, Cosmos-SLA printed vertically showed the highest FS, while the PMMA Control obtained the highest FM for both aging periods.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105479
JournalJournal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
StatePublished - Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes

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Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd


  • Dimensional measurement accuracy
  • Flexural strength
  • Hardness
  • Interim dental prostheses
  • Three-dimensional printing


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