Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide and women with a history of GDM are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes which is a risk factor for periodontitis. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and -9 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during early pregnancy with the periodontal diagnosis and the risk of GDM development. Methods: A prospective cohort study, including 314 women, enrolled at 11 to 14 weeks of pregnancy was conducted. A complete maternal/obstetric and periodontal exam was performed, and GCF samples were obtained for the MMP-8 and -9 determination by Multiplex Elisa Assays. Mann-Whitney test; Spearman's correlation and log-binomial regression model estimated the association between MMPs concentration in GCF and GDM. Results: Fourteen percent of the pregnancies were diagnosed with GDM. An increase in the concentration of MMP-8 and -9 in women with periodontitis stage III and IV compared to periodontitis stage I was observed (99.31 ng/mL [IQR: 85.32] versus 71.95 ng/mL [IQR: 54.04], and 262.4 ng/mL [IQR: 312.55] versus 114.1 ng/mL [IQR: 184.94], respectively). Women who developed GDM showed increased concentrations of MMP-8 and -9 in GCF since the beginning of pregnancy (P = 0.0381; P = 0.0302, respectively). MMP-8 concentration in GCF was associated with GDM (RR: 1.19; P = 0.045; CI 95% 1.00 to 1.40; and RR: 1.20; P = 0.063; CI 95% 0.99 to 1.45 in the adjusted model). Conclusion(s): GCF concentrations of MMP-8 and -9 at early of pregnancy are increased in women with severe periodontitis and associated with the GDM development.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
FONDEF IDeA ID16I10452, Fund to Encourage Scientific and Technological Development (“FONDEF”), located at Moneda 1375, Santiago, Chile. Timo Sorsa has received grants from the Helsinki University Hospital (TYH2016251, TYH2017251, TYH2018229, TYH2019319, Y1014SLO17, Y1014SLO18 and, Y1014SULE1) and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
© 2020 American Academy of Periodontology
- biomarkers; diabetes
- gestational; gingival crevicular fluid; metalloproteinases; periodontitis