BACKGROUND: To explore the diagnostic usefulness of extracellular vesicles (EVs), and their subpopulations (micro-vesicles and exosomes), and microRNAs (miRNA-21-3p, miRNA-150-5p, and miRNA-26a-5p) in peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) of subjects with healthy, peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis implants.
METHODS: A total of 54 patients were enrolled into healthy, peri-implant mucositis, and peri-implantitis groups. PICF samples were collected, EVs subpopulations (MVs and Exo) were isolated and characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The expression of miRNA-21-3p, miRNA-150-5p and miRNA-26a-5p was quantified by qRT-PCR. Logistic regression models and accuracy performance tests were estimated.
RESULTS: PICF samples show the presence of EVs delimited by a bi-layered membrane, in accordance with the morphology and size (< 200 nm). The concentration of PICF-EVs, micro-vesicles and exosomes was significantly increased in peri-implantitis implants compared to healthy implants (P = 0.023, P = 0.002, P = 0.036, respectively). miRNA-21-3p and miRNA-150-5p expression were significantly downregulated in patients with peri-implantitis in comparison with peri-implant mucositis sites (P = 0.011, P = 0.020, respectively). The reduced expression of miRNA-21-3p and miRNA-150-5p was associated with peri-implantitis diagnosis (OR:0.23, CI 0.08-0.66, P = 0.007 and OR:0.07, CI 0.01-0.78, P = 0.031, respectively). The model which included the miRNA-21-3p and miRNA-150-5p expression had a sensitivity of 93.3%, a specificity of 76.5%, a positive predictive value of 77.8%, and a negative predictive value of 92.9%. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 3.97 and 0.09, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the model was 0.84.
CONCLUSIONS: An increase concentration of EVs with a downregulation expression of miRNA-21-3p and miRNA-150-5p could be related with the peri-implantitis development.