DC-DC Converters for Bipolar Microgrid Voltage Balancing: A Comprehensive Review of Architectures and Topologies

V. Fernao Pires, A. Cordeiro, C. Roncero-Clemente, Sebastian Rivera, Tomislav Dragicevic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


DC microgrids initiated the change of a paradigm regarding the concept about electrical distribution networks, especially in the context of the distributed generation associated to renewable energies. However, this new reality opens a new area of research, in which several aspects must be carefully studied. Indeed, the bipolar design is one of the principal dc microgrid configurations considering its characteristic wiring. Although holding many promising advantages, the bipolar dc microgrid has a tendency towards voltage and current imbalances due to the unequal distribution of the loads and generators between the two poles. Thus, specific power-electronic-based solutions are required to ensure the balance of these dc microgrids. Within this frame, this article gives a comprehensive review of the multiple architectures and power electronic topologies proposed to mitigate/eliminate this undesired condition. The following provides an insightful classification and discussion with the pros and cons of these solutions. This work can serve as a timely review for researcher/engineers who want to enter the voltage balancing field in the bipolar dc grids and promote the innovation of their power-electronics-enabled solutions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)981-998
Number of pages18
JournalIEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:


  • Aircraft
  • Bipolar dc microgrid
  • Data centers
  • dc-dc converters
  • DC-DC power converters
  • Microgrids
  • Power electronics
  • smart grid
  • Topology
  • unbalanced grid
  • Voltage
  • voltage balancer


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