Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) into Spanish (Chile)

Aaron A. Cortes*, Franco L. Mombello, Carolina J. Aviles, Mariluna Corvalan, Alfredo Nuñez, Giovanni Carcuro U, Mario I. Escudero, Manuel J. Pellegrini

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The purpose of this protocol was to adapt and validate the English version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) into Chilean Spanish according to the World Health Organisation guidelines. This is a cross-sectional study of 897 surveys of patients with non-traumatic surgical orthopaedic pathologies. We analysed internal consistency, validity, and acceptability, including correlation with the short form 36 (SF-36) medical score. The validation included 900 participants with a response rate of 99,66%, with excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.962). The Dysfunction and Bother Index items showed a value of 0.952 and 0.884 respectively, eliminating one item in the Dysfunction sub-scale. The principal component analysis was forced to four factors explaining 55.5% of the variance. SMFA-CL sub-scales are significantly correlated with SF-36 components and subcomponents. The first version of the SMFA-CL version (Spanish-Chilean) scale is reported. This culturally adapted score demonstrated a high rate of reliability, validity, and ability to objectively evaluate foot and ankle pathologies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalResearch in Sports Medicine
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

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© 2023 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • Cross-cultural adaptation
  • Orthopaedic condition
  • Proms
  • Psychometric evaluation
  • Spanish


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