Since doctors disposed of effective tools to serve their patients, they had to worry about the proper management of available resources and how to deal with the relationship with the industry that provides such resources. In this relationship, health professionals may be involved in conflicts of interest that they need to acknowledge and learn how to handle. This article discusses the conflicts of interest in nephrology. Its objectives are to identify those areas where such conflicts could occur; to help to solve them, always considering the best interest of patients; and to help health workers to keep in mind that they have to preserve their autonomy and professional integrity. Conflicts of interest of professionals in the renal area and related scientific societies, with the industry producing equipment, supplies and drugs are reviewed. Dichotomy, payment for referral, self-referral of patients and incentives for cost control are analyzed. Finally, recommendations to help preserve a good practice in nephrology are made.
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