Common models and approaches for the clinical educator to plan effective feedback encounters

Cesar Orsini, Veena Rodrigues, Jorge Tricio, Margarita Rosel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Giving constructive feedback is crucial for learners to bridge the gap between their current performance and the desired standards of competence. Giving effective feedback is a skill that can be learned, practiced, and improved. Therefore, our aim was to explore models in clinical settings and assess their transferability to different clinical feedback encounters. We identified the 6 most common and accepted feedback models, including the Feedback Sandwich, the Pendleton Rules, the One-Minute Preceptor, the SET-GO model, the R2C2 (Rapport/Reaction/Content/Coach), and the ALOBA (Agenda Led Outcome-based Analysis) model. We present a handy resource describing their structure, strengths, and weaknesses, requirements for educators and learners, and suitable feedback encounters for use for each model. These feedback models represent practical frameworks for educators to adopt but also to adapt to their preferred style, combining and modifying them if necessary to suit their needs and context.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)35
Number of pages1
JournalJournal of educational evaluation for health professions
StatePublished - 2022


  • Feedback
  • Formative Feedback
  • Medical education
  • Medical student


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