Cold-adaptation of a methacrylamide gelatin towards the expansion of the biomaterial toolbox for specialized functionalities in tissue engineering

Alessandro Zaupa, Nicholas Byres, Chiara Dal Zovo, Cristian A. Acevedo, Ioannis Angelopoulos, Claudia Terraza, Nikolaus Nestle, Phammela N. Abarzúa-Illanes, Franck Quero, Paulo Díaz-Calderón, Yusser Olguín, Tamara L. Akentjew, Camila A. Wilkens, Cristina Padilla, Flavia C. Zacconi, Karina Pino-Lagos, Jonny J. Blaker, Maroun Khoury, Javier Enrione, Juan Pablo Acevedo*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Tissue regeneration is witnessing a significant surge in advanced medicine. It requires the interaction of scaffolds with different cell types for efficient tissue formation post-implantation. The presence of tissue subtypes in more complex organs demands the co-existence of different biomaterials showing different hydrolysis rate for specialized cell-dependent remodeling. To expand the available toolbox of biomaterials with sufficient mechanical strength and variable rate of enzymatic degradation, a cold-adapted methacrylamide gelatin was developed from salmon skin. Compared with mammalian methacrylamide gelatin (GelMA), hydrogels derived from salmon GelMA displayed similar mechanical properties than the former. Nevertheless, salmon gelatin and salmon GelMA-derived hydrogels presented characteristics common of cold-adaptation, such as reduced activation energy for collagenase, increased enzymatic hydrolysis turnover of hydrogels, increased interconnected polypeptides molecular mobility and lower physical gelation capability. These properties resulted in increased cell-remodeling rate in vitro and in vivo, proving the potential and biological tolerance of this mechanically adequate cold-adapted biomaterial as alternative scaffold subtypes with improved cell invasion and tissue fusion capacity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)373-390
Number of pages18
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering C
StatePublished - Sep 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by CORFO Chile (Corporación de Fomento a la Producción), through its grant 15CONTEC-47942 and by the Ministry of Education, Government of Chile through its grant UAN1301 .

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Elsevier B.V.


  • Cold-adapted
  • Gelatin
  • Methacrylamide
  • Salmon
  • Tissue engineering


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