. Tissue regeneration is witnessing a significant surge in advanced medicine. It requires the interaction of scaffolds with different cell types for efficient tissue formation post-implantation. The presence of tissue subtypes in more complex organs demands the co-existence of different biomaterials showing different hydrolysis rate for specialized cell-dependent remodeling. To expand the available toolbox of biomaterials with sufficient mechanical strength and variable rate of enzymatic degradation, a cold-adapted methacrylamide gelatin was developed from salmon skin. Compared with mammalian methacrylamide gelatin (GelMA), hydrogels derived from salmon GelMA displayed similar mechanical properties than the former. Nevertheless, salmon gelatin and salmon GelMA-derived hydrogels presented characteristics common of cold-adaptation, such as reduced activation energy for collagenase, increased enzymatic hydrolysis turnover of hydrogels, increased interconnected polypeptides molecular mobility and lower physical gelation capability. These properties resulted in increased cell-remodeling rate in vitro and in vivo, proving the potential and biological tolerance of this mechanically adequate cold-adapted biomaterial as alternative scaffold subtypes with improved cell invasion and tissue fusion capacity.
- Tissue engineering