Introduction: Drug-induced acute kidney injury (DI-AKI) is a frequent adverse event. The identification of DI-AKI is challenged by competing etiologies, clinical heterogeneity among patients, and a lack of accurate diagnostic tools. Our research aims to describe the clinical characteristics and predictive variables of DI-AKI. Methods: We analyzed data from the Drug-Induced Renal Injury Consortium (DIRECT) study (NCT02159209), an international, multicenter, observational cohort study of enriched clinically adjudicated DI-AKI cases. Cases met the primary inclusion criteria if the patient was exposed to at least 1 nephrotoxic drug for a minimum of 24 hours prior to AKI onset. Cases were clinically adjudicated, and inter-rater reliability (IRR) was measured using Krippendorff's alpha. Variables associated with DI-AKI were identified using L1 regularized multivariable logistic regression. Model performance was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC AUC). Results: A total of 314 AKI cases met the eligibility criteria for this analysis, and 271 (86%) cases were adjudicated as DI-AKI. The majority of the AKI cases were recruited from the United States (68%). The most frequent causal nephrotoxic drugs were vancomycin (48.7%), nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (18.2%), and piperacillin/tazobactam (17.8%). The IRR for DI-AKI adjudication was 0.309. The multivariable model identified age, vascular capacity, hyperglycemia, infections, pyuria, serum creatinine (SCr) trends, and contrast media as significant predictors of DI-AKI with good performance (ROC AUC 0.86). Conclusion: The identification of DI-AKI is challenging even with comprehensive adjudication by experienced nephrologists. Our analysis identified key clinical characteristics and outcomes of DI-AKI compared to other AKI etiologies.
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- drug-induced acute kidney injury