The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS), the UNESCO’s Section for Teacher Development and the UIS Education Standards and Methodologies section are developing a global framework and derived data collection strategy to improve the monitoring plan on target 4.c of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) scheme (UN, 2015; UNESCO, 2014, 2016b). Target 4.c aims at “(…) substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially leastdeveloped countries and small island developing States”. Progress on this target is measured by the following single indicator: “4.c.1. Proportion of teachers in: (a) preprimary education; (b) primary education; (c) lower secondary education; and (d) upper secondary education who have received at least the minimum organized teacher training (e.g. pedagogical training) preservice or in the relevant level in a given country” (UNESCO, 2016b, p. 28). The UIS annually administers the Survey of Formal Education (SFE) service require d for teaching at (UNESCO, 2016, 2018; Wallet, 2015, p. 0) to monitor crossnational progress on this indicator through data provided by officials from Ministries of Education and National Statistic al Offices. Sections A9 and A10 of this instrument collect the “Number of classroom teachers by teaching level of education, employment status, type of institution and sex” and the “Number of classroom teachers by employment status, qualified and trained s tatus , teaching level of education, type of institution and sex”, respectively. National statistics on these indicators are used to estimate the size of the teacher workforce, including full and part time staff, detailed by level of education as indicated in the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED). Thereby, the SFU provides crucial evidence on the proportion of teachers with the minimum organized training primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education. However, the meaning of the concept minimum organized training at preprimary, included in the SFE, which is based in the notions of qualified and trained teachers , prompts difficulties to assess countries’ advance towards target 4.c. External validity of these concepts is likely to be constrained to national standards for the teaching profession, which hinders a fair comparison across countries (Mitchell & Taylor, 2015) . Semantic differences included in legislations or practical adjustments applied by institutions, may increase cross cultural bias in their definitions. Furthermore, the distinction between “academic” qualifications and “pedagogical” training activities is not sharply determined in the current instrument. National requirements to teach may not always reflect these concepts, especially because they are primarily based in the charac teristics of the provision of teacher training available in each country This challenge clearly suggests the need for a crossnationally valid framework (UNESCO, 2019) . that enable the production of reliable data on indicator 4.c.1, based on international standards and descriptors of teacher education programmes and pathways to the profession. This analytical report aims at reviewing current definitions and pathways that describe at the international level the characteristics of a trained and qualified teacher. Consequently, a feasible data collection strategy is suggested to monitor indicator 4.c.1 in the coming years.
|Place of Publication
|Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura (UNESCO)
|UNESCO Institute of Statistics, Technical Cooperation Group
|Number of pages
|Published - 2019