Bite force measurements with hard and soft bite surfaces.

C. M. Serra, A. E. Manns*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations


Bite force has been measured by different methods and over a wide variety of designs. In several instruments, the fact that bite surface has been manufactured with stiff materials might interfere in obtaining reliable data, by a more prompt activation of inhibitory reflex mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to compare the maximum voluntary bite force measured by a digital occlusal force gauge (GM10 Nagano Keiki, Japan) between different opponent teeth, employing semi-hard or soft bite surfaces. A sample of 34 young adults with complete natural dentition was studied. The original semi-hard bite surface was exchanged by a soft one, made of leather and rubber. Maximum voluntary bite force recordings were made for each tooth group and for both bite surfaces. Statistical analyses (Student's t-test) revealed significant differences, with higher scores while using the soft surface across sexes and tooth groups (P < 0·05). Differential activation of periodontal mechanoreceptors of a specific tooth group is mainly conditioned by the hardness of the bite surface; a soft surface induces greater activation of elevator musculature, while a hard one induces inhibition more promptly. Thus, soft bite surfaces are recommended for higher reliability in maximum voluntary bite force recordings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)563-568
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Oral Rehabilitation
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2013


  • Bite force
  • Dental occlusion
  • GM10 bite force meter
  • Hardness
  • Occlusal force


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